Types of IPO

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Different types of IPO have their own investment requirements and business processes to be followed. In this detailed review, we will have a detailed look at different types of IPO available for your stock market investments.

We will also try to address the differences between both types of IPO with the help of a few relevant examples so that the overall learning process is relatively simpler.

In case you are looking to learn about IPOs and then, probably looking to invest in one, then you need to understand some of the basic intricacies. In this quick and short review, we will talk about the types of IPO and the difference between them.

This is important to know for the simple reason that in case you choose to invest in any of the upcoming IPOs, then knowing different key aspects (around IPO), can help you in making the decision with ease. In this review, we will look at different types of IPOs and the difference between those.

Types of IPO in India

At a general level, there are 2 types of IPOs in India:

Book Building Issue

There are cases when a company knows the specific price at which it looks to issue its shares through the initial offer.

However, if the company filing for an IPO does not know the specific price at which it must market its shares, then it launches its IPO with a specific price range and not at a fixed price. This particular process where the price discovery of shares is done through bidding by investors is called Book Building.

This is a tried and tested technique which is recommended by major exchanges in the world where the price is finalized during the IPO process itself.

Within this price band, the lowest price is termed as the Floor Price while the highest price is known as the Cap Price of the share. The final share price is decided based on the investor bids and the overall demand after the bid closing date.

Fixed Price Issue

Fixed Price Issue, as the name suggests, applies in the case when the business is 100% sure of the specific price point it is going to launch its IPO at. Getting to a specific price range requires detailed research, competitive analysis, industry benchmarking etc.

At the same time, if there is some confusion left with the finalized price – then it can lead to a few repercussions impacting the company valuation at the end of the day.

Book Building Vs Fixed Price

Both these types of issues are different by the following means:

  • In a fixed price issue, the investors are provided with the information of offering price of the issue (shares) well in advance so that they can create an objective goal around their investment. On the other hand, a price band is shared in case of a book building issue, which is basically a range of price and not a specific number.
  • When it comes to making the payment for the shares purchased in an issue, you are required to make the payment in advance while you are subscribing to the shares in case of Fixed Price Issue. However, in the case of book building issue, there is no such condition. You can make the payment only after you are allocated the shares.
  • In fixed price issues, 50% of the overall share allocation is reserved for applications below ₹1 Lakh (and balance for applications with higher amounts). In the case of book building issues though, there is allocation as well but that is based on the category of investor and not on the bidding amount. That is, 50% of the shares are kept for Qualified Institutional buyers, 35% for retail investors and 15% for the rest.
  • Once the Fixed Price Issue is closed, the demand for the securities is made available only at that time. While, in the case of book building issue, this demand for shares can be known every day.

Here is a quick summary of the difference between Book Building Vs Fixed Price types of IPO:


Types of IPO Example

Let’s try to dig a bit deeper and understand the different types of IPO with the help of a real-life example. Hopefully, with this practical example, things get easier to digest.

Real Life Example – Facebook IPO

Let us take a real-life example to understand the importance of the book building process in the IPOs valuation and how this type is more credible than the fixed price issue.

When Facebook was going to launch its IPO in May 2012 – the investment banker hired (Morgan Stanley0 used the book building process in order to reach a specific issue price. The initial price band was kept at $28 to $35, however looking at the overall demand, the band was changed to $34 to $38. With all this utter confusion (read greed), the share price saw a reasonable variation.

It reached at a price of $45 at one point in time during its first trading day but ended up just at $38.03.

This shows that you need to be very wary of the different aspects involved in finalizing the issue price. Although Facebook currently is trading at a staggering price of $178, that is a different story altogether.


Types of IPO Investors

Specifically, there are 4 types of IPO investors in terms of size and trade volume. Let’s have a quick look:

Qualified Institutional Investors or QIIs

These are corporate investment houses and the investments done are based on in-depth technical and fundamental analysis of stocks and public offerings.

From IPO investments’ perspective, a large chunk of IPO shares is availed to these investors by the underwriting team of the company getting listed. If the QIIs research goes in line with the company, they can take away as large as 50% of the overall shares available for investment.

With such chunk gone away, the supply of shares goes down and the demand goes up, thereby increasing the IPO price band.

However, this 50% is the maximum Institutional investors can get allocated as per the norm set by SEBI.

Anchor Investors

Going further into the IPO subscription funnel, the qualified institutional investors who can apply for more than ₹10 Crore worth are termed as anchor investors. Out of the total shares allocated to QIIs, 60% can be allocated to anchor investors.

Retail Investors

Retail investors imply generic public investor who is looking to place a bid in an upcoming issue. The minimum allocation in this type is kept at 35%.

The maximum amount that one application can apply for is ₹2 Lakhs. However, you can place multiple IPO bids as well. Depending on the IPO demand, corresponding IPO allocation will be made to your application.

HNI Investors

Furthermore, if you are looking to place a bid in excess of ₹2 Lakhs, then you will be termed as an HNI or High-net-worth individual.

The issuance of shares to an HNI is based on a proportionate level. Even though they may get a lesser number of shares allocated but they do get subscription nonetheless.


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More on Share Market Education:

If you are looking to know more about IPOs, here are a few references for you:

 

 

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